REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
A review of related literature is of vital importance in research. It helps the researcher to find out where to get support for his/her research. The researcher can also learn about the researches that have been conducted in the past on similar subjects. To build up a strong theoretical base, the researcher needs to be aware not only of the researches conducted in his/her country but also about researches conducted in other countries. Since research is based on the past knowledge, this step helps to eliminate the duplication of what has been done and provides useful hypotheses and helpful suggestions to conduct significant research. Citing studies that show substantial agreement and disagreement about conclusions helps the researcher to sharpen and define understanding of existing knowledge in the research area. It makes the researcher alert to possibilities till now overlooked and gives insight into new approaches and methodologies. At times, review may also provide suggestions about useful and new lines of approach to the present problem.
For this purpose, the researcher has reviewed literature both at national and international levels. A number of researches on information and communication technology and students’ achievement were found to have been conducted in different contexts. Role of technology in enhancing learning abilities and self-esteem have also been looked into in varying conditions. The researcher felt the need to review them in order to arrive at their applicability in the Indian context. The aim was to engage with the relevant literature available in the field to unpack the different ways in which information and communication technology (ICT) based teaching is conceptualized in India and abroad. For easy reference researcher has arranged the reviews under the following headings:
- ICT and performance of students.
- ICT and learning abilities of students.
- ICT and self-esteem of students.
Further, the reviews for these variables have been categorized under reviews of studies conducted in India and abroad.
2.2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ON ICT AND ACADEMIC
ACHIEVEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
Studies Conducted in India on ICT and Student Achievement
The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), New Delhi and IEA (1995)1 conducted a joint study on the first impact study of computers in Indian classrooms in two phases in select schools. The instruments used for data collection were far too advanced for the then prevalent computing practices in Indian schools. Since the objectives of the Indian school computing programme have been global and flexible, researchers were not sure what to expect as its impact on schools.
Thatte C. H., (1998)2, conducted an experimental study on the relative effectiveness of programmed learning and learning through audio visual aids (AV aids) with reference to certain selected topics from the syllabus of Science for Std. V to VII in Greater Bombay. AV aids method was found to be significantly more effective than the programmed learning method and the traditional method in terms of achievement at Std. V, VI, and VII and they are more successful when the classes are small, at the same time they are more effective for average students.
Khirwadkar, Anjali, (1999)3 conducted a research on ‘Developing a computer software for learning Chemistry at Std. IX’. She developed a computer assisted learning package in the subject of Chemistry for Std IX science students and studied the effectiveness of the developed software in terms of instructional time and achievement of students. She also studied the effect of software package on students’ achievement in relation to their intelligence level, motivation level, and attitude towards the package. The developed software package was found to be effective in terms of academic achievement of the students. The students and teachers were found to have favourable opinion towards the software package. There was found an interaction effect of IQ, motivation and opinion of students on their academic achievement.
Munther Mohammed Zyoud, (1999)4, conducted a research on the development of computer assisted English language teaching for Std. VIII Gujarati medium students. He studied the effectiveness of the computer assisted English language teaching programme on student achievement in terms of vocabulary, grammar and comprehension with respect to their intelligence, motivation and attitude. He also studied the attitude of the students towards the usefulness of the computer. The study reveals that when the computer is used to its full potential, it can help the students achieve more in learning vocabulary, grammar and comprehension to the learners with different IQ, motivation and attitude. It helps the students learn better because it provides them with a lot of freedom and responsibility to learn at their own pace. The students were found to have positive attitude towards computer assisted English language instruction.
Yadav Kusum, (2004)5, in a similar research developed an IT enabled instructional package for teaching English Grammar to English medium students of senior secondary section and study its effectiveness in terms of achievement of the students and opinions of students and English teachers. It was found that students’ achievement improved through IT- enabled instructional package. The students and teachers were found to have a favourable opinion towards the developed instructional package.
Desai, Beena Y. (2004)6, in a comparative study of the efficacy of teaching through the traditional method and the multimedia approach in the subject of Home Science found that the students have favourable opinions towards the multimedia based teaching approach. The study has found the relative efficacy of teaching through the traditional method and the multimedia approach in the subject of Home Science.
Intel Teach Essentials, (August 2005)7, conducted a research on the role of ICT in enhancing education in developing countries in six schools in Chile, India, and Turkey. This paper presents findings from case studies of the introduction of the Intel® Teach Essentials Course- a professional development program focused on integrating information and communication technologies (ICT) into project-based learning. This study described four common dimensions of change in learning environments that emerged across the countries: 1) Changes in teachers’ knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes; 2) Changes in how students engage with content; 3) Changes in relationships among students, teachers, and parents; and 4) Changes in the use of ICT tools to promote students’ learning. Three of these dimensions relate to shifts in pedagogical paradigms that appear to be prerequisites to effectively using ICT to support students’ learning. The findings indicated that these shifts must not just occur at the teacher level, but must take hold throughout the educational system and must accompany sustained investment in infrastructure, human resources, curricular frameworks, and assessment.
Das Gupta, Chirashree and Haridas KPN, (2006)8, conducted a research on role of ICT in improving the quality of school education in Bihar. Synthesis from this literature shows that the effective uses of ICT to improve the learning environment in schools catering to students from underprivileged social backgrounds depends on several factors. Cost-effective scalable delivery systems are required to meet challenges of provision of basic infrastructure and teacher, overall and sustained enhancement of ICT skill-levels of teacher, motivation of teachers, curriculum designers and other stakeholders to integrate ICT into curriculum and pedagogy. In total, 175000 students and 2100 teachers in 619 centers spread over 375 blocks in all districts of Bihar were officially covered under the programme. There were also private delivery initiatives by education, skill and software providers. It was concluded that students’ access to computer aids and project work with computer aids are crucial to levels of skill and knowledge acquired by the student. While the conceptualization of the programme as a computer aided teaching delivery system led to emphasis on the teaching (through Compact Discs (CDs) in the current phase of the programme) it has not made any significant impact on either skill or knowledge levels given the larger constraints of the social impediments to learning effectiveness in schools in Bihar.
Vidya Bhawan Society and Azim Premji Foundation (2008)9 conducted a study on Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) in 2001 in rural Karnataka and was subsequently taken up in other states like Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Uttarakhand. The objectives of this study were to study the effectiveness of the implementation mechanisms and training strategies in the programme and to study the process of delivery in CAL classes and its impact in the classroom and to study the role of other stake-holders like the state government, teachers, schools etc. The programme seemed to function best in schools in Karnataka compared to other states. The infrastructure of almost all CAL centers was in place with all the safety measures needed. Each CAL centre had two to five computers. Teachers from all states felt that computers and technology are essential in today’s classrooms and that technology is not just meant for private schools. At the same time, teachers across all states felt that computers do not decrease the role of teachers in classroom process, classroom teaching does not get diluted due to CAL and neither is learning opportunities reduced due to CAL. Also, teachers felt that children get an opportunity for self learning through Compact Discs (CDs).
The general feeling was that children are interested in learning subject matter through CDs and are actually learning and understanding through the CDs. Teachers across all states feel that CDs not only increase a child’s concentration but also their creativity and imagination. Most teachers felt that the achievement levels of children have improved due to CDs. Teachers in all states felt that Computer Assisted Learning Project (CALP) has increased regular attendance. Peer group learning was observed in all states with children taking help from their friends to understand content. A positive relationship was also seen between the teacher and students during CAL sessions. In all the states children did not hesitate in asking teachers questions.
Gurumurthy, K. (2009)10 conducted a study based on policy reviews, theoretical explorations and empirical evidence of delivery systems of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) in Kerala and Karnataka. It pointed out that the digital medium has the capacity to allow local knowledge construction and also supports all the modes (text, audio, and video). Hence its potential for revolutionizing teaching learning needs to be explored. However this exploration needs to be firmly grounded in both educational aims/philosophies as well as educational contexts and anchored by educationists to be successful.
Mallik Utpal, (July 2012)11 conducted a study on the impact of ICT on schooling: ‘The Starry-Night Effect’ which states that clear objectives of ICT in schools stated in the National or State policy and a strategy to translate these into curriculum, pedagogy, assessment and teacher training can create a climate conducive to the use of ICT in schools. The effects of the technology on teaching-learning can then be clearly assessed. But not many ICT programmes in India and many other countries operate in this climate. If news reports are indicators to go by, there are no teachers for computer classes in government schools in the country’s capital for the past several years. No teacher, no time, no programme, and no place for computers in the school – the picture is more pathetic in the rest of India 25 years after the introduction of computers in schools- meanwhile, there are reports galore that record the more successful aspects of ICT programmes, ignoring the ones that are not so successful. Such reports create the starry-night effect – referring to the ‘computer literacy and studies in schools’ (CLASS) which is a government of India project that introduced computers in schools for the first time in India in 1984. This project has proved to be spectacular but illusory.
Studies Conducted Abroad on ICT and Student Achievement
Many researches abroad were found to have been conducted in schools using or planning to use technology. The review of related literature was conducted in order to gain an insight into new lines of approach to the present problem and to arrive at their applicability in Indian context.
Kulik, J. (1994)12 in his meta-analysis study revealed that on average, students who used ICT based instruction scored higher than students without computers. The students also learn more in less time and they like their classes more when ICT-based instruction was included. He used research technique called meta-analysis to aggregate the findings from more than 500 individual research studies of computer-based instruction. Computer-based instruction individualizes the educational process to accommodate the needs, interests, proclivities, current knowledge, and learning styles of the student. Computer-based instruction software consists of tutorial, drill, and practice, and more recently Integrated Learning Systems. Kulik drew several conclusions from his 1994 work.
Positive Findings: On an average, students who used computer-based instruction scored at the 64th percentile on tests of achievement compared to students in the control conditions without computers who scored at the 50th percentile. Students learn more in less time when they receive computer-based instruction. Students like their classes more and develop more positive attitudes when their classes include computer-based instruction.
Negative Findings: Computers did not have positive effects in every area in which they were studied.
Wenglinsky, H. (1998)13 in his research found that for fourth- and eighth-graders, technology has positive benefits on achievement as measured in Michigan Education Assessment programme (MEAP)’s Mathematics test. Interestingly, Wenglinsky found that using computers to teach low order thinking skills, such as drill and practice, had a negative impact on academic achievement, while using computers to solve simulations saw their students’ Math scores increase significantly.
Tinzmann, M. B. (1998)14 found from his study that use of technology tends to foster collaboration among students, which in turn may have a positive effect on student achievement.
Wishart, J. Blease, D. (1999)15 studied the impact of computer installation in secondary school and found that there were significant changes in teaching and learning after installing a computer network in a secondary school.
Attwell, P. and Battle, J. (1999)16 examined the relationship between having a home computer and school performance, for a sample of approximately 64,300 students in the United States. Their findings suggest that students, who have access to a computer at home, for educational purposes, demonstrate improved scores in reading and math.
Murphy et al (2001)17 in their meta-analysis review of research conducted between 1993 and 2000 on the effectiveness of discreet educational software (DES), found evidence of a positive association between use of DES products and student achievement in reading and Mathematics. Students in the early grades, from pre-K to grade 3, and in the middle school grades appear to benefit most from DES applications for reading instruction, as do students with special reading needs.
Boster, F.J. Meyer, G.S. Roberto, A.J. & Inge, C (2002) 18 examined the integration of standards-based video clips into lessons developed by classroom teachers and found that it increases students’ achievement. The study of more than 1,400 elementary and middle school students in three Virginia school districts showed an average increase in learning for students exposed to the video clip application compared to students who received traditional instruction alone. Relying on a series of four experiments, F. J. Boster, G. S. Meyer, A. J. Roberto, C. Inge, and R. E. Strom (2006) demonstrated that students exposed to video streaming exhibited more improvement in examination performance than control students. In extension, this study tests the effect of using video streaming with a very different topic (mathematics), with a very different student population (large urban), and with different grades (sixth and eighth). The results replicated Boster et al. (2006) and indicate that the mean examination performance for those in the video-streaming condition exceeds the mean examination performance of the control group.
Papanastasiou, E. Zemblyas, M. & Vrasidas C. (2003) 19 in a study that examined relationship between computer use and students’ science achievement based on data from a standardized assessment, found it is not the computer use itself that has a positive or negative effect on achievement of students, but the way in which computers are used.
Liu, Z. (2005) and Ramirez, E. (2003)20 studied and report that students print material from the internet in order to study and read later on. They feel that such method help them in their academics. To provide answers to these questions one hundred and fifty -seven students from senior secondary school were sampled from two secondary schools each from five out of the six educational districts in Lagos State. These secondary schools are equipped with electronic computer system connected to internet.
Garrison, D.R. and Kanuka, H. (2004)21 compared blended learning environment (ICT with traditional teaching) and traditional learning Environment and observed that more effective and efficient learning occurs in blended learning environment that includes ICT with traditional learning methods and that the success level of students is raised. This also gives students a wide range of material to get information to help them study.
Sosin et al. (2004)22 constructed a database of 67 sections of introductory economics, enrolling 3,986 students, taught by 30 instructors across 15 institutions in the United States of America during the spring and fall semesters of 2002. They found significant but small positive impact on students’ performance due to ICT use. But the results also show that some ICT seem to be positively correlated to the performance while the others are not!
Fuchs, T. and Woessman, H. (2004)23 reported in the findings of their study that ICT constitutes an input in students’ learning process that should help produce better learning output. ICT use can enhance learning by making education less dependent on differing teacher quality and by making education available at home throughout the day. Authors argue that the use of ICTs can positively infer knowledge to students. Furthermore, ICT use can help students exploit enormous information possibilities for schooling purposes and can increase learning through communication.
Coates et al (2004)24, in their study titled, ‘Fulfilling the Potential -Transforming Teaching and Learning through ICT in Schools’ show that students in on-campus courses used to score better than their online counterparts. The enormous potential of ICT means that for the first time it is becoming possible for each child to be educated in a way and at a pace which suits them, recognizing that each student is different, with different abilities, interests and needs. The challenge over the next years will be successfully embedding ICT in every facet of teaching and learning where it can directly impact on raising standards of attainment.
O’Dwyer, Russell, Bebell, and Tucker-Seeley (2005)25 conducted a study on Michigan’s Freedom to Learn (FTL) initiative, an effort to provide middle school students and teachers with access to wireless laptop computers. This initiative has been credited with improving grades, motivation and discipline in classrooms across the state, with one exemplary school seeing reading proficiency scores on the Michigan Education Assessment Program (MEAP) test, administered in January 2005, reportedly increasing from 29 percent to 41 percent for seventh graders and from 31 to 63 percent for eighth graders (eSchool News, 2005).
Voogt, J. & Pelgrum, H. (2005)26 conducted a study on ICT and curriculum change. The change towards the information society implies that many countries have to change their curricula, because students need to develop competencies that are not addressed in the traditional curricula. A case study approach was applied to examine curriculum changes in ICT-supported pedagogical practices from 28 countries. The analysis focused on curriculum content and goals of the ICT-supported pedagogical practices, how these aims were implemented in practice and which outcomes for students and teachers could be observed. The results showed that the curriculum content often was not new but rather was delivered in a different way. Many ICT-supported pedagogical practices strove to realize new goals, important for lifelong learning in an information society. Content and goals were offered in curricular settings, often crossing the traditional boundaries of academic subjects. In many of the cases students worked on topics that were meaningful to them.
Tah Babila (2010)27 conducted a case study on the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on students’ study habits and to investigate students’ familiarity and attitude towards ICTs. The results revealed that students have a positive attitude towards ICTs as such use them to facilitate learning. The results also revealed that male students are more favourable toward ICT usage and likely to find that ICT’s help them at their studies. As such students constantly change their study habits based on the type of ICT they use to ease studies. According to the findings of the research, students are of the view that ICTs have a positive impact on their study habits (81%), although 90% of male students support this view with regard to 73% of female students. In addition, 83% of students say they use a computer daily to facilitate learning.
- REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ON ICT AND LEARNING ABILITIES OF STUDENTS
Studies Conducted in India on ICT and Learning Abilities
Maheshwari, Uma P. and Arulchelvan, S. (2003) 28, studied the usage of ICT among the students and teachers and its impact on their communication behaviour. They report that ICT enhances a student’s ability to learn and has the potential to support education across the curriculum. It can provide opportunities for effective communication between students and teachers in a way that have not been possible ever before. Even though students are using ICT tools for many academic related activities, its usage is limited and they still give more priority to face to face interaction with teachers. Apart from using ICT to enhance knowledge, students are using ICT for other related sub activities like circulating materials, arranging meeting and passing information. Teachers are gradually moving from lecture based teaching to interactive teaching using multiple media. Teachers prefer to use PowerPoint presentations for teaching and are open to online submission of assignments and doubt clarification. Teachers are not only actively incorporating ICT in teaching but are also active web content provider for the Engineering lectures. Teachers have expressed that infrastructure inability, pressure of syllabus completion on time, lack of appreciation and training as barriers in implementing ICT in higher education.
Ranjan Nilay and Rahman Naimur 29 studied the role of teacher in enhancing learning achievement of child & emphasis on teacher skill development, knowledge building and ICT. They took a stock of current training module for the teacher training and identified demand-supply gap in terms of skill development like information, communication and technology (ICT) and capacity building in the knowledge management process. With computer-aided education, the children are learning concepts with the help of graphics, animation, story etc. The content CDs developed in difficult subjects such as Math, EVS and language provide a resource support to the teachers to teach the curriculum in a more effective and child friendly manner. Furthermore, computer aided education (CAE) offers the teacher an opportunity to make the materials interactive for learners which facilitates student learning and creates a scope for teachers to make an innovative learning environment for the students. CAE empowers the teachers to create opportunities for promotion of group learning and self-learning. The students see their performance each day in a different light. They become concerned about reaching the desired performance levels, and their progress rapidly improves. This has been studied in earlier researches too.
Syed Noor-Ul-Amin (2009)30, studied the effective use of ICT for education and learning by drawing on worldwide knowledge, research, and experience: ICT as a change agent for education. The purpose of this paper was to bring together the findings and key points from a review of significant part of the available literature associated with ICTs for education and ICTs in education. This review set out to identify and evaluate relevant strategies in national and international research and initiatives related to measuring and demonstrating the effective use of ICT for education with regard to several aspects including ICT and learning motivation and learning environment. ICT presents an entirely new learning environment for students, thus requiring a different skill set to be successful. Critical thinking, research, and evaluation skills are growing in importance as students have increasing volumes of information from a variety of sources to sort through. ICT is changing processes of teaching and learning by adding elements of vitality to learning environments. ICT may also make complex processes easier to understand through simulations that, again, contribute to authentic learning environments. Thus, ICT may function as a facilitator of active learning and higher-order thinking. The use of ICT may foster co-operative learning and reflection about the content.
Studies Conducted Abroad on ICT and Learning Abilities
Bruce, B.C. and Levin, J.A. (1997) 31 , conducted a study that revealed that the tools, techniques, and applications of technology can support integrated, inquiry-based learning to engage children in exploring, thinking, reading, writing, researching, inventing, problem-solving, and experiencing the world. As students gain knowledge, they also need to be able to think through technology in order to express the concepts they have synthesized. Learning in almost any subject today means not only learning the concepts within that area, but also how to use technologies in the endeavor, Thus, the traditional lines between learning about technology and learning through technology are beginning to blur. The balance between learning and doing is impacted by new technologies for learning. In this paper, they explore a framework for expertise that emphasizes the power of multiple coordinated representations. They use a learner-centered taxonomy of technology uses for learning as a framework for systematically developing powerful environments for learning. By examining both the costs and benefits of learning, they saw the impact that new technologies for learning have on the learner, the learning environment, and the larger society.
Henriquez, A. & Riconscente, M. (1998) 32, concluded in their study that if a new technology is introduced into a classroom, other things also change. For example, teachers’ perceptions of their students’ capabilities can shift dramatically when technology is integrated into the classroom. Also, teachers frequently find themselves acting more as coaches and less as lecturers. There may be expectations that technology will solve all the school’s problems with student learning and achievement. To be effective, however, technology must be used to promote new learning goals and teaching strategies that are student-centered, collaborative, engaging, authentic, self-directed, and based on development of higher-order thinking skills. Some educators view technology as important to schooling but only as something to be learned as a discrete skill. Emphasizing the use of technology as a job skill, they focus on teaching students how to use various types of software or programs that are likely to be encountered in business or technical work environments. This approach to technology use focuses on acquisition of practical skills rather than the skills of critical thinking, interpretation, and synthesis.
Rochelle, J.M., Pea, R.D., Hoadley, C.M,. Gordin, D.N., and Means, B.M. (2000)33 , in their research indicate that computer technology can help support learning and is especially useful in developing the higher-order skills of critical thinking, analysis, and scientific inquiry by engaging students in authentic, complex tasks within collaborative learning contexts. Technology needs to be viewed as a tool to support learning and not as a means of transmitting information or perpetuating teacher-centered approaches. They contend that new information and communications technologies (ICT) can bring exciting curricula based on real-world problems into the classroom, and provide scaffolds and tools to enhance learning. The interactivity of technologies is cited as a key feature that enables students to receive feedback on their performance, test and reflect on their ideas, and revise their understanding. Networked technology can enable teachers and students to build local and global communities that connect them with interested people and expand opportunities for learning.
Riel, M. and Becker, H. (2000)34 found that teachers experienced in using ICT were more likely to expect their students to contribute new insights and provide an atmosphere of respect for divergent innovative thinking. In other words, they taught students in ways that support students, and not their own, understanding of learning. The study also revealed that in order to reach every child will take a structure that develop not just the technology, ICT skills of teachers but their leadership skills as well. This will help schools to cope with rapid rate of change that is required for the use of technology.
Marshall, J.M. (2002)35 “We’ve wired the schools — now what?” This question resonates with educators, and troubles them at the same time. After countless local and national efforts have boosted the infrastructure of our schools, the significant issues now arise. Should we continue to pump money into educational technology for our schools? Do computers really help students learn? How can students and teachers best learn from the World Wide Web and its content? In a review of existing evidence of technology’s impact on learning, Marshall found strong evidence that educational technology complements what a great teacher does naturally, extending their reach and broadening their students’ experience beyond the classroom. With ever-expanding content and technology choices, from video to multimedia to the Internet, there’s an unprecedented need to understand the recipe for success, which involves the learner, the teacher, the content, and the environment in which technology is used. This history provides evidence that learning can result from the use of educational technologies. Early use of these ‘tools of learning’ provided tangible results and prompted interest in the increasing potential for learning by technology.
Kozma, Robert B. (2003)36, Center for Technology in Learning, S.R.I. International, made a study that examined the findings from 174 case studies of innovative pedagogical practices using technology from 28 participating countries. The study looks at how classrooms worldwide are using technology to change the practices of teachers and students. Within many of these classrooms, the use of technological tools and resources supported students as they searched for information, designed products and published results. Teachers created structure, provided advice, and monitored progress. It was found that specifically, studies are needed that directly assess the impact of ICT on student learning, especially those skills such as information handling, problem solving, communication, and collaboration that are considered important for the 21st century.
Papastergiou Marina, (2009)37 conducted a study on digital game-based learning in high school computer science education: Impact on educational effectiveness and student motivation. The aim of this study was to assess the learning effectiveness and motivational appeal of a computer game for learning computer memory concepts, which was designed according to the curricular objectives and the subject matter of the Greek high school computer science (CS) curriculum. The results suggest that within high school Computer Science, educational computer games can be exploited as effective and motivational learning environments, regardless of students’ gender.
However, the outcomes reported in those cases suggested that when teachers go beyond these basic practices and use technology to also plan and prepare instruction and collaborate with outside actors, and when students also use technology to conduct research projects, analyze data, solve problems, design products, and assess their own work, students are more likely to develop new ICT, problem solving, information management, collaboration, and communication skills.
- REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ON ICT AND SELF-ESTEEM OF STUDENTS
Many studies have established a strong link between students’ beliefs about themselves and their success as learners.
Studies Conducted in India on ICT and Self-Esteem
Bhattacharya, I. and Sharma, K. (2007)38 report in their study that in the current information society, people have to access knowledge via ICT to keep pace with the latest developments. In such a scenario, education, which always plays a critical role in any economic and social growth of a country, becomes even more important. The various kinds of ICT products available and having relevance to education, such as teleconferencing, email, audio conferencing, television lessons, radio broadcasts, interactive radio counselling, interactive voice response system, audiocassettes and CD ROMs have been used in education for different purposes. . It gives the students a sense of well being as well as capacity to absorb new ideas, increases their social interaction, gives access to improved health and provides several more intangible benefits. Enhanced group collaboration is made possible via ICT. New educational approaches in teaching can be used. ICT can provide speedy dissemination of education to target disadvantaged groups. The globalization process has also created a large market of offshore students. To reach them, information technology is the only convenient medium, which can offer education as a service. All this has a positive effect on a student’s well being and self-esteem.
Mondal, Ajit and Mete, Dr. Jayanta, (2012) 39 in their study on ICT in Higher Education: Opportunities and Challenges state that the introduction of ICTs in the higher education has profound implications for the whole education process especially in dealing with key issues of access, equity, management, efficiency, pedagogy and quality. In the absence of ICT, most of the responsibility of teaching and learning lies on the teachers. However, with the help of ICT one can transfer the responsibilities to the students so that they can self manage. It helps to individualize the teaching or guidance method as per the student’s need. It also boosts the confidence level and the self-esteem of the students who acquire the ICT skills through the process of being exposed to such kind of learning.
Studies Conducted Abroad on ICT and Self-Esteem
Burns, R. (1982)40 in a study on ‘Self-concept development and education’ states that there is a greater emphasis by the individual on the psychological interior, such that students will often make references to, for example , depression, moodiness and sensitivity. It is perhaps the pressure academic pursuits, the cultural emphasis on success and assessment, and peer pressure and competition that particularly facilitate self-concept and self-esteem development at this stage of life. Role based abstractions also appear in adolescence, whereby the self image of the individual is perceived contextually, i.e. a different self with different types of people (teacher, friend, parent).
Bandura, A. (1986)41 notes that self-esteem is partly determined by ‘how well one’s behaviour matches personal standards of worthiness’. In support of Bandura, further evidence is reported by the PISA 2003 study that students’ academic self-concept is both an important outcome of education and a powerful predictor of student success. Belief in one’s own abilities is highly relevant to successful learning (Marsh, 1986).
Cuttance, P. and Stokes, S. (2000)42 reported that effective ICT-based learning environments can have an impact on a range of non-cognitive learning outcomes, including affective development, such as self-esteem, motivation and a sense of purpose.
Sivin-Kachala and Bialo, (2000)43 commissioned researches that examined 311 research reviews and reports from published and unpublished sources. The authors concluded that technology has a positive effect on student attitudes toward learning, self-confidence and self esteem.
Pajares, F. and Schunk, D.H. (2001)44 note that assessing students’ self-beliefs can provide schools with important insights about their pupils’ academic motivation, behavior, and future choices. Moreover, unrealistically low self-esteem, and not lack of capacity, can lead to a lack of confidence and contribute towards maladaptive academic behaviours and diminishing school interest and achievement. Although there is a wealth of research reporting the relationship between self esteem and learning, how computers impact on students’ self-esteem as learners is not as widely reported in the literature.
- Alpay (2004)45 in his study on ‘Self concept and self-esteem looked at the educational implications in a relation between students achievement and self-esteem and that improvement in self-esteem will lead to improvement in achievement. He concluded that the relationship between specific self-esteem and achievement suggest that school based intervention programmes may be beneficial in improving the academic performance of students of low-esteem.
Dix Katherine L. (2007)46 studied the impact of ICT adoption on students and teachers on a total of 219 teachers and 2560 students from six metropolitan public primary and secondary schools in South Australia. She found that school-wide integration of ICT promotes significant change in teaching practice and has benefits for students, particularly those with low self-esteem. Moreover, it also appears to benefit girls, by reducing the gender gap in which boys traditionally maintain higher self-esteem. Students’ self-esteem and their attitudes towards computers are found to improve significantly in an increasingly ICT-rich learning environment. However, as computers became the norm rather than a perceived highlight in daily school life, the influence of technology on students’ attitudes towards school becomes less important.
Cotton Shelia R., (2008)47 studied on students’ technology use and the impacts on their well-being, technology use patterns and the social impacts of technology on well-being among students. The impact of ICT on student’s performance in higher education, in the article, ‘The Economics of E-learning’ was reported. The purpose of the present study is to examine the relationship between the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and student performance in higher education. This may explain the observed differences in students’ achievement and helps to create a culture of success. This can be demonstrated in their increased commitment to the learning task, their enhanced enjoyment, interest and sense of achievement in learning when using ICT, and their enhanced self esteem.
2.5 CONCLUSIONS FROM THE REVIEW
Researches on successfully developing, evaluating, studying, and implementing a wide range of technology-based educational programs suggests that the value of technology for students will not be realized unless attention is paid to several important considerations that support the effective use of technology. Researchers are also making progress on the more complicated task of investigating the impact of use of technology, on higher order thinking skills, as measured through means other than standardized tests. They are examining students’ ability to understand complex phenomena, analyze and synthesize multiple sources of information, and build representations of their own knowledge. At the same time, some researchers are calling for newer standardized assessments that emphasize the ability to access, interpret, and synthesize information. Some of the studies abroad can be used as guidelines in the Indian context, giving insight into a new approach to education and achievement of students coming from low income backgrounds in Mumbai.
It is important to provide professional development to teachers to help them to choose most appropriate technologies to be used in classroom. Students cannot be expected to benefit from technology if their teachers are neither familiar nor comfortable using it. It is understood by most of the researches that there is a growing need to focus on teachers and teachers’ training and not on ‘direct student- learning’ using ICTs. ICTs are complex and need to be first interpreted by the teachers and then presented to the young minds. Hence, teachers need to improve their own capacities before they can do such interpretations. The models that have been successful have generally given a lot of importance to teachers’ training and development. Next important aspect for success of ICT based education is to focus on computer / ICT aided learning and not on computer literacy of students. Then further, there is a need to focus on overall improvement of the entire system of education in relation to ICT rather than on specific topics/subjects. Finally, there is an increasing need to focus on keeping public ownership over knowledge resources, instead of privatizing knowledge. The following diagram explains this concept:
Many researchers abroad have studied about the ways in which the tools, techniques, and applications of technology can support integrated, inquiry-based learning to engage children in exploring, thinking, reading, writing, researching, inventing, problem-solving, and experiencing the world. They established a conditional relationship between student achievement and computer and internet use at school. The researchers have also found that there could be negative effects of computerized instruction if technology is not used in proper context as it is supposed to be for students. So they have found a solution so that ICT can be used to help students and teachers for improvement and the results are desirable. The experts have thus developed the idea of technology as media with four different foci: From the reviews, it was also found that most of the teachers felt that use of Compact Discs (CDs) in teaching help in learning of subject matter and promote self-learning provided they contain learning items for self-evaluation. In India, specially in rural areas, it is a reality that there is lack of teachers for computer classes in schools. No teacher, no time, no programme, and no place for computers in the school, even 25 years after the introduction of computers in schools. The impact of technology on students’ achievement cannot be measured for the entire country by studying a handful of schools which have introduced ICT in teaching.
Media for inquiry means data modeling, spreadsheets, access to online databases, access to online observatories and microscopes, and hypertext; Media for communication includes word processing, e-mail, synchronous conferencing, graphics software, simulations, and tutorials; Media for construction embodies robotics, computer-aided design, and control systems; and media for expression incorporates interactive video, animation software, and music composition. Thus teachers can make maximum use of technology to aid learning. With ever-expanding content and technology choices, from video to multimedia to the internet there’s an unprecedented need to understand the way to achieve success, which involves the learner, the teacher, the content, and the environment in which technology is used.
Some studies have also found that since a student’s performance is mainly explained by a student’s characteristics, educational environment and teachers’ characteristics, ICT may have an impact on these determinants and consequently the outcome of education. The differences observed in students’ performance are thus related more to the differentiated impact of ICT on standard explanatory factors.
Four fundamental characteristics of how technology can enhance both what and how children learn in the classroom have been recognized: active engagement, participation in groups, frequent interaction and feedback, and connections to real-world contexts. It indicates that use of technology is more effective as a learning tool when embedded in a broader education reform movement that includes improvements in teacher training, curriculum, student assessment, and a school’s capacity for change. Research indicates that computer technology can help support learning and is especially useful in developing the higher-order skills of critical thinking, analysis, and scientific inquiry by engaging students in authentic, complex tasks within collaborative learning contexts.
All the researches have in their own way found out that ICT has a positive effect on students’ education. Also at the same time, a bird’s eye view of the reviews of the previous studies reveal that the use of ICTs positively impact students’ study habits, and that, 83% of students are found to be using computers daily to facilitate learning. ICT need to be dealt with very scientifically and carefully. Too much of media addiction is harmful. ICT can contribute to psycho-social development if it is used meticulously. One can converse with the distant people through networks within no time as per needs. So there is a shift from local society to global society. It is a well known fact that very often team mind is better than individual mind. Countrywide classroom programs and World Wide Web are contributing to the enhancement of human psyche. Children/students will use their visual senses after going through internet sites. Their concepts will be cleared which will help in enhancing the learning abilities. They will become more creative and can grasp the new technology in easier way.
But some questions arise out of this. In this age of media crowd, how about the sensitivity to the basic culture of the receivers? ICTs demand more of sensitivity on the part of both, the designers and producers on one side and the receiver on the other side. How to establish the effects of the media? There has been a notion that the affect attributes cannot be developed through interpersonal communication. It seems to be more of a misnomer. Man has started sharing feelings more with the media. People have started identifying more with the virtual reality than the real objects. If media substitutes man, who will be responsible for the outcome?
Hence, there is a need of properly integrating the ICT in teacher education. ICT is considered to be flexible for training. The rhythm of study, the allocation of time and the availability of teachers can allow better articulation between private life/professional life as well as a better allocation of time between the various uses of ICT. However, although much of the research claims benefits for the use of ICT, some studies are less optimistic. Concerns about the effects of student’s use of computer on their social development were voiced by teachers.
2.6 OVERVIEW OF THE FINDINGS
The researcher reviewed the existing literature on the studies conducted on ICT and students’ achievement, learning abilities and self-esteem. The overview of the findings with regards to respondents, participants and methodologies is as follows:
Overview of Sample and Methodology Used in Previous Studies
The Summary of Overall Findings
|Studies Conducted on ICT and Academic Achievement of Students||Studies Conducted on ICT and Learning Abilities of Students||Studies Conducted on ICT and Self-Esteem of Students|
2.7 WHAT IS BEING TALKED ABOUT ON ICT IN EDUCATION…
After reviewing the related literature in ICT and academic achievement, learning abilities and self-esteem in India and abroad, researcher also felt the need to know the current trends and attitudes of students, teachers and parents with regards to the use of ICT in education in the city of Mumbai and in the national context. Newspaper articles that appeared from time to time gave a picture of these trends that have been compiled below:
‘The Times of India’, (November 4, 2009)48, student edition, Dhanraj, R.et. al. in an article ‘Joy of learning in the digital age: Wiki: Call them Wikids!’ reported that while some educationists find Wikipedia an easy way to find information, others doubt its credentials. Is Wiki a good tool for school learning? Now adays, most of the cell phones can access Wikipedia, which means one can use it anywhere. The Wiki reader- a palm sized electronic encyclopedia contains more than three million English language articles on Wikipedia. It is best recommended for school students. At the same time, there are many who feel that copy-cut- paste is the only use some children make of Wikipedia or Google. This has an adverse effect on creativity of students. Students should not just directly lift material from Wiki but use it as a platform for research.
‘The Times of India’, (December 12, 2011)49 reported by Shreya Bhandari, in an article about striking a balance between technology and the human touch in classrooms. In a quality survey conducted by the Times of India- Quality of Life Survey, Mumbai’s schooling system scored 3.5 on a scale of 1 to 5. The city educationists said that the students are now exposed to a great deal of knowledge, so classes should be conducted in a manner that students do not lose interest in the subject. An environment for students to transform their knowledge into something concrete should be provided in the classrooms. Moving beyond the chalk and talk, smart class, computers and other forms of technology are now replacing traditional teaching methods. But technology is not entirely encouraged by many. Despite an increase in digitalization in classrooms, it is important to have human interaction in class. A balance has to be found between technology and teacher interaction in the classroom.
‘The Times of India’, (December 14, 2011)50 reported by Shreya Bhandari ‘Tech boost worries psychiatrists’. Parents are divided in their views and doubt whether education through use of latest gadgets is distractive and will hamper students’ growth or it will help in their achievement. There are tangible benefits on use of new technology among students. It can be used to lessen the weight of the heavy school bags, and help them acclimatize themselves with the modern technology that they will have to use later in life, but the downside is that the use of gadgets may become a habit and distract them from their goal. Many schools advocate the use of iPads for learning as they feel that with the availability of 3D images, topic such as the solar system can be taught effectively, instead of teachers talking in class.
The Times of India, (March 3, 2012)51, Johnson Craig, in an article ‘Can we Bridge Tech Divide?’ opened a debate to school principals, counselors and experts who discussed the merits of technology in classrooms. For American School of Bombay (ASB), technology use in classroom means focusing on collaborative learning over independent or competitive learning. As collaboration, critical thinking and communication are universally considered critical skills for a successful 21st century citizen, ASB teachers use software such as Google, Live@edu and drop box to nurture these skills. Students use them to create e-portfolios and projects. Students are able to share their work with their families, friends and community members. Instead of leaving technology out of classroom, it is better to own it and use it to enhance development of youth. It does not make sense to restrict teachers to the age old traditional formats of teaching and learning in the classroom. Use of tablets (a one-piece mobile computer) in teaching can bring about a unique transformation to the teacher-student relationship, where teacher has to stop teaching and start collaborating, learning and discussing issues with their students.
Hindustan Times, (March 23, 2012)52, Mehta Pankti reported in an article ‘Evolving Education’, that our education system has taken rapid strides in the past few years which has presented new challenges to the students, parents, teachers and academic institutions. Schools are outsourcing elements of their pedagogy systems to companies who help them design course content, curricula and use new technology. Some parents say that due to the use of technology in the classroom, they find their children much more engaged in the school as they understand the concepts faster and it stimulates them to ask questions. The experts who design these programmes feel that if everything outside the classroom has changed dramatically, there is no reason why the teachers should still use the archaic methods in the classrooms. The teacher’s job is made easier with technology which creates new roles for her/him. Teacher has to be prepared enough, to be able to field the questions that students will be stimulated to ask in a technology efficient classroom.
Hindustan Times, (August 9, 2013)53, Pednekar Pooja put forth students’ views in the column ‘School Notes’ on the topic ‘Should Children Use Tablets in Classrooms?’ Students presented a variety of views. Some felt that dependence on technology would prevent them from using their brain power. They may be tempted to play games or chat through the internet and that could prove to be distracting. They should be made to think creatively and use all their senses instead of learning through preset options. Some students also felt that there would be less interaction with the teacher if students are allowed to use tablets in the classroom. Handmade projects would give way to e- projects, soft copy assignments and power point presentations. Some other students were of the opinion that the use of tablets could help students by making a big difference in their lives as it facilitates access to thousands of e-books and video lectures from professors across the world. However all the respondents felt that a supervised use of tablets in the class could go a long way in the improvement in students’ achievements?
Thus it can be concluded from the newspaper articles that use of technology has brought about a big change in the way teaching and learning is taking place in the classrooms. Increasingly it is felt that students should not be left on their own to deal with technology in learning, but they need supervision and guidance to make proper use of the gadgets and ICT tools for their educational projects and assignments. It is also important for teachers to be well prepared to be able to make best use of the immense possibilities technology has to offer, to improve their teaching and to answer the queries of enlightened students who understand the concepts faster and are stimulated to ask questions.
From the review of the earlier researches and newspaper articles it is concluded that generally students respond better to technology. Almost all the researchers agree that use of ICT in teaching helps in one way or the other but some also have found that ICT tools in teaching do not help much in developing routine work in learning. Few researchers have reported that use of ICT to teach is the key to success in developing the learning abilities and skills of students at secondary level of education. The teachers at this level should be made aware about the various ICT tools to teach different subjects. Although most of these researches conducted, studied various aspects mentioned above but studies to this effect are not conducted in Mumbai schools so far. There are studies conducted in Mathematics, reading and other subjects, the researcher found that hardly any study is conducted in English and Geography to this effect. Therefore the researcher felt the need for conducting the present study to develop an ICT based teaching programme to teach students of Std. X and study its effect on their academic achievement, learning abilities and self-esteem. She also wanted to study whether such an ICT tools based teaching programme is effective in a class with a large number of students or not.
The researcher had these questions in front of her which would be answered in her study:
- Whether the use of information and technology (ICT) tools to teach English and Geography to Std X students, will have an effect on their achievement in these subjects?
- Whether an ICT tools based teaching programme in English and Geography, specially designed to teach Std X students, help to improve the learning abilities of those students?
- Whether an ICT tools based teaching programme in English and Geography, help to improve the learning abilities in terms of communication skills, team work, problem solving and critical thinking skills of those students?
- Whether an ICT tools based teaching programme in English and Geography specially designed to teach Std X students, help to improve the self-esteem of those students?
The aims of the researcher are to study and find the answers to the above mentioned questions. The review of related researches revealed that although studies have been conducted on effect of ICT tools on student’s performance, development of positive attitude towards learning, increase in math scores and reading skills, foster collaboration among students, none of them have studied the effect of ICT tools on the academic achievements, learning abilities and self esteem of Std. X students. Hence the researcher wants to develop a teaching programme in English and Geography, which none of the above studies has specifically looked into. She wants to study that if a teacher teaches these subjects with a specially designed programme that uses ICT tools with a teaching method that is engaging, interactive, collaborative and encourages and motivates students to analyze, criticize and communicate and opine with each other and with the teacher, whether it will have impact on their academic achievement, learning abilities and self-esteem or not and how much. Based on the existing literature and its review the researcher decided to use experimental design of study.
This chapter has discussed the researches conducted over the years on ICT in teaching, academic achievement, learning abilities and self-esteem of students in India as well as various countries across the world. The review helped confirm the variables of the study and supported the need for the study. It was found to the best of knowledge of the researcher that no study has been conducted in India with this combination of variables and effect of ICT on secondary school students’ achievement, learning abilities and self-esteem. The review also facilitated the finalization of the method of study, identify gaps, get support for the research and also build up a strong theoretical base. The following chapter discusses the background and understanding of variables, building up the theoretical and conceptual framework of the study.
- The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), (1987-1995), ‘A joint study of the first impact study of computers in Indian classrooms in two phases in select schools’. New Delhi.
- Thatte C. H., (1998). ‘The Relative Effectiveness of Programmed Learning and Learning Through Audio Visual Aids’. Greater Bombay, an Experimental Study, University of Mumbai, Mumbai.
- Khirwadkar Anjali (1999). Developing a Computer Software for Learning Chemistry at Standard IX, a Ph.D. Thesis, the M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara.
- Munther, Zyoud Mohammed ( 1999), Development of Computer Assisted English Language Teaching for VIII Standard Students, Ph.D. Thesis, M.S. University, Baroda.
- Yadav Kusum (2004). Development of an IT Enabled Instructional Package for Teaching English medium students of Vadodara City. M.Ed. Dissertation, CASE, The M.S. University of Baroda, Baroda.
- Desai Beena Y. (2004). A Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Teaching through the Traditional Method and the Multimedia Approach in the Subject of Home Science. A Ph.D. Thesis, South Gujarat University, Surat, India. .
- Intel Teach Essentials, (August 2005). Role of ICT in Enhancing Education in Developing Countries. A Professional Development Program Focused on Integrating Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) into Project-Based Learning in Six Schools in Chile, India and Turkey.
- Das Gupta, Chirashree and Haridas K.P.N., (2006). Role of ICT in Improving the Quality of School Education in Bihar, A Study on the Schools Catering to Students from Underprivileged Social Backgrounds in the State of Bihar, India.
- Vidya Bhawan Society and Azim Premji Foundation, (2008). ‘A Study of the Computer Assisted Learning Program (CALP)’. Educational Resource Unit, conducted in four selected states– Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Uttarakhand.
- Gurumurthy, K. (2009). Policy Reviews, Theoretical Explorations and Empirical Evidence of Delivery Systems of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) in Kerala and Karnataka. A Research Study.
- Utpal Mallik, (2012). ‘A Study on the Impact of ICT on Schooling: The Starry-Night Effect’. Information Technology in Developing Countries, A Newsletter of the IFIP Working Group 9.4 and Center for Electronic Governance, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad.
- Kulik, J.A. (1994). Meta-Analytical Research in E.l. Baker & H. F. O’Neile, Jr. (Edi) Technology Assessment in Education and Training, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. p. 9-33.
- Wenglinsky, H. (1998). ‘Does it Compute? The Relationship Between Educational Technology and Student Achievement in Mathematics’. ETS Policy Information Center. New Jersey, Princeton.
- Tinzmann, M. B. (1998). How Does Technology Affect Students Learning and Engagement in Collaborative Activities?Unpublished Manuscript.
- Wishart, J. Blease, D. (1999). ‘Theories Underlying Perceived Changes in Teaching and Learning After Installing a Computer Network in a Secondary School’, British Journal of Educational Technology, 30 (1), p.25-41. London.
- Attwell, P. and Battle, J. (1999). ‘Home Computers and School Performance’. The Information
Society. No. 15, p. 1-10
- Murphy et al (2001). ‘Effectiveness of DES (Discreet Educational Software)’. Meta-analysis review of research conducted between 1993 and 2000.
- Boster F.J. Meyer G.S., Roberto A. J., & Inge C.C. (2002). Using Technology to Improve Student Achievement’. A Report on the ‘Effect of the United Streaming’ TM application on educational performance.
- Papanastasiou E, Zemblyas M, & Vrasidas C (2003). ‘Can Computer Use Hurt Science Achievement?’ Journal of Science Education and Technology, 12 (3), 325-332.
- Liu Z. (2005) and Ramirez M. (2003). ‘Reading Behaviour in the Digital Environment: Changes in Reading Behaviour over the Past 10 Years’ and ‘The Impact of the Internet on the Reading Practices of a University Community: the Case of UNAM’, Proceedings of the 69th IFLA General Conference and Council. J. Doc., 61 (6): 700-12’
- Garrison, D. R. & Kanuka, H. (2004). ‘Blended learning: Uncovering its Transformative Potential in Higher Education’. The Internet and Higher Education, 7(2), 95-105.
- Sosin, K., Blecha, B.J., Agawal, R., Bartlett, R.L., Daniel, J.I. (2004), ‘Efficiency in the Use of Technology in Economic Education: Some Preliminary Result’. American Economic Review, May 2004 (Papers and Proceedings), p. 253-258.
- Fuchs T. and Woessman L. (2004). ‘Computers and Student Learning: Bivariate and Multivariate Evidence on the Availability and Use of Computers at Home and at School.’ Brussels Economic Review, ULB – Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 47(3-4), p. 359-386.
- Coates, D., Humphreys, B. R. et al. (2004). ‘No Significant Distance between Face-to Face and Online Instruction’, Evidence from ‘Principles of Economics’. Economics of Education Review 23(6): p 533-546.
- O’Dwyer, L. M., Russell, M., Bebell, D., et al., (2005, January). ‘Examining the Relationship between Home and School Computer Use and Students’. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment. Vol.3 No.3. www.bc.edu/research/intasc/studies/USEIT
- Voogt, J. & Pelgrum, H. (2005). ‘ICT and Curriculum Change. Human Technology’. An Interdisciplinary Journal on Humans in ICT Environments, 1(2), p. 157–175.
- Tah Babila Mbah (2010). The Impact of ICT on Students’ Study Habits. Case study. University of Buea, Cameroon Fon’s Street, Bamenda, Cameroon.
- . Maheswari Uma P. (2003) Usage of ICT among the Students and Teachers and its Impact on Their Communication Behaviour. Journal of Social Sciences. Vol. 36 No 2 December, 2012, p.160-170
- Syed Noor-Ul-Amin,(2009). An Effective Use of ICT for Education and Learning by Drawing on Worldwide Knowledge, Research, and Experience: A literature review Department Of Education, University Of Kashmir.
- Ranjan, N and Naimur, R. Role of Teacher in Enhancing Learning Achievements of Children and Emphasis on Teacher Skill Development, Knowledge Building and ICT’, www.dhsekerala.gov.in, accessed 15th December 2011
- James A. Levin and Bertram C. Bruce (1997). Technology as Media: The Learner Centered Perspective. University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Paper presented at the 2001 AERA Meeting, Seattle WA.
- Henriquez A. & Riconscente M. (1998). Rhode Island Teachers and Technology Initiative: Findings from the Pilot Implementation Year.
- Roschelle, J.M., Pea R.D., Hoadley C.M., Gordin D.N. & Means B.M. (2000). ‘Changing How and What Children Learn in School With Computer-Based Technologies, The Future of Children’. USA- Center for Technology in Learning, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, USA.p. 76-101.
- Riel M. and Becker H. (2000). ‘Teacher Professional Engagement and Constructivist-Compatible Computer Use’. Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations, Irvine, University of California.
- Marshall, J.M. (2002). ‘Learning with Technology’ Evidence that Technology can, and Does, Support Learning’. A white paper prepared for ‘Cable in the Classroom’ San Diego State University.
- Kozma, R. (Ed.) (2003). ‘Technology, Innovation, and Educational Change: A Global Perspective.’ Eugene, Oregon: International Society for Technology in Education. 2012http://www. europeanjournalofsocialsciences.com.
- Marina Papastergiou, (2009). Digital Game-Based Learning in High School Computer Science Education: Impact on Educational Effectiveness and Student Motivation. Trikala, Greece. Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Karyes.
- Bhattacharya, I. & Sharma, K. (2007). ‘India in the Knowledge Economy – an Electronic Paradigm’, in International Journal of Educational Management Vol. 21 No. 6, p. 543–568.
- Mondal, A. and Mete, Jayanta (2012). ‘ICT in Higher Education: Opportunities and Challenges’, in Bhatter College Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, Vol. II, Pabitra Kumar Mishra from http//bcjms.bhattercollege.ac.in.
- Burns, R. (1982), Self-Concept Development and Education, p. 202, London, Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
- Bandura A. (1986). ‘The Explanatory and Predictive Scope of Self-Efficacy Theory.’ Journal of Clinical and Social Psychology, 4, p. 359-373.
- Cuttance, P. and Stokes, S. (2000). Reporting on Student and School Achievement. Canberra. DETYA.
- Sivin-Kachala, J and Bialo, E. (2000). ‘Software and Information Industry Association’ (SIIA, 2000). Research Report on the Effectiveness of Technology in Schools (7th ed.). Washington, DC: Software and Information Industry Association.
- Pajares, F. and Schunk D. H. (2001). ‘Self-Beliefs and School Success: Self-Efficacy, Self-Concept, and School Achievement’, in R. Riding & S. Rayner (Eds.), Perception p. 239-266. London: Ablex Publishing.
- Alpay E. (2004). Self-Concept and Self-Esteem. ‘Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology’ Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Prince Consort Road, London
- Katherine L. Dix (2007). ‘A Research Paradigm for ICT Adoption. School of Education‘, Flinders University email@example.com
- Shelia R. Cotton, (2008). ‘Social Impacts of Technology’. Assessing the Educational, Career, and Social Impacts of the XO Laptop Program in Birmingham’, AL City Schools. National Science Foundation.
- Dhanraj R., Bhardwaj R, Cherian A. (2009). ‘Joy of learning in the digital age: Wiki: Call them Wikids!’ The Times of India, Student Edition. Mumbai, November 4, (2009).
- Shreya Bhandari , (2011),) ‘ Striking a Balance Between Tech and Human Touch in Classrooms’. The Times of India, Mumbai, December 12, (2011)/TNN/ Times City, p. 6.
- Shreya Bhandary, (2011). ‘Tech Boost Worries Psychiatrists’. The Times of India, Mumbai, December 14, (2011) /TNN/Times City, p. 6.
- Johnson Craig, (2012). ‘Can We Bridge Tech Divide?’ The Times of India, Mumbai, March 3, (2012) /Times City/Mumbai for kids/pg 6.
- Mehta Pankti, (2012). ‘Evolving Education’, in Hindustan Times, Metro Special, March 23, 2012, p. 12.
- Pednekar, Puja (2013),’ Should Children use Tablets in Classrooms’?, Hindustan Times, School Notes, August 9, 2013, pg 8.